- [Bingel 1991] Bingel AS, Farnsworth NR. Higher plants as potential sources of galactagogues, in Wagner H, Farnsworth NR, eds. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, Volume 6, Academic Press Ltd, New York, 1994: 1-54.
- [CommE] Fenugreek Seed excerpted from Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs, American Botanical Council, 2000.
- [Brinker 1998] Brinker F. Herb Contradictions and Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998, 70–1. Excerpt.
- [Dehlvi] Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi) from DehlviRemedies.com
- [Dugue 1993] Dugue P, Bel J, Figueredo M. Fenugreek causing a new type of occupational asthma. Presse Med 1993 May 29;22(19):922.
- [Hale 2002] Hale T. Medications and Mothers' Milk, 10th Edition. Pharmasoft Medical Publishing, 2002, p.277-279.
- [Heller] Heller L. Fenugreek: A Noteworthy Hypoglycemic
- [Huggins] Huggins KE. Fenugreek: One Remedy for Low Milk Production.
- [IntelliHealth] Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) from IntelliHealth.com
- [Korman 2001] Korman SH, Cohen E, Preminger A. Pseudo-maple syrup urine disease due to maternal prenatal ingestion of fenugreek. J Paediatr Child Health 2001 Aug;37(4):403-4.
- [Lawrence 1999] Lawrence RA. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1999, p. 376.
- [Madar 1987] Madar Z, Thorne R. Dietary fiber. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1987;11(2):153-74.
- [McGuffin 1997] McGuffin M., Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A. American Herbal Product Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1997.
- [MHO] Fenugreek from Medicinal Herbs Online
- [Motherlove] Herbs to Avoid While Pregnant from Motherlove Herbal
- [Ody 1999] Ody P. Herbs to Avoid During Pregnancy from Herbs for a Healthy Pregnancy. Los Angeles, Calif: Keats; 1999.
- [Ohnuma 1998] Ohnuma N, Yamaguchi E, Kawakami Y. Anaphylaxis to curry powder. Allergy 1998 Apr;53(4):452-4.
- [Patil 1997] Patil SP, Niphadkar PV, Bapat MM. Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997 Mar;78(3):297-300.
- [Rice] Rice LA. Fenugreek, in Herbal Supplements in Pregnancy
- [Richmond] Fenugreek by Della Richmond
- [Swafford 2000] Swafford S, Berens B. Effect of fenugreek on breast milk production. ABM News and Views 2000;6(3): Annual meeting abstracts Sept 11-13, 2000
Background: Fenugreek is a popular herb used in the lay population as a galactogogue though scientific research regarding efficacy has not been published.
Objective: To assess the effect of fenugreek on breast milk production in exclusively breast-pumping women.
Methods: Ten women kept diaries of their breast milk production for two weeks. The first week established baseline milk production. During the second week three capsules of fenugreek seed were taken three times daily. This observational study used each patient as her own control in comparing breast milk production with and without the fenugreek.
Results: Average daily pump volumes for week 1 and week 2 were compared. These values were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The average daily milk volume for week 1 was 207 ml compared to 464 for week 2. This increase was statistically significant (P=0.004)
Conclusion: The use of fenugreek significantly increased volume of breastmilk produced. Further study of the herb and its effects on the lactating breast is certainly warranted. The use of fenugreek to improve lactation could offer help to women with insufficient supply.
- [Turner] Turner M. Galactagogues: Getting More Milk with Herbs
- [Wichtl 1994] Wichtl M and NG Bisset (eds). 1994. Foenugraeci semen – Fenugreek seed, Trigonella, in Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. (English translation by Norman Grainger Bisset). CRC Press, Stuttgart, pp. 203-205.
- [White] Increasing Milk Supply by Cheryl Taylor White
- [Willard 1991] Willard, T. The Wild Rose Scientific Herbal. Calgary, Alberta: Wild Rose College of Natural Healing, Ltd. 1991:123,62,173.
- Fenugreek Survey from BreastfeedingOnline
- Fenugreek FAQ from BreastfeedingOnline
- "Fenugreek - Overlooked but not Forgotten" by Rima Jensen, MD
- "Fenugreek: One Remedy for Low Milk Production" by Kathleen E. Huggins, RN, MS
- All About Fenugreek from Breastfeeding.com
- Fenugreek, An Herb to Increase Milk Supply from Medela.com
- Galactagogues: Getting More Milk with Herbs by Mechell Turner, M.Ed., IBCLC, CCE, certified herbalist
- Increasing Milk Supply by Cheryl Taylor White
- Fenugreek by Della Richmond
- Literature review of fennel, fenugreek, blessed thistle, nettle and raspberry leaf by Rachel Emma Westfall
- Nice F, Coghlan RJ, Birmingham BT. Herbals and Breastfeeding. U.S. Pharmacist: September 2000, Vol. 25:9
- Gabay MP. Galactogogues: medications that induce lactation. J Hum Lact 2002 Aug;18(3):274-9.
- Motherlove Herbal Company is one source for fenugreek seed tincture.
- Fenugreek Seed: from Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds) The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, p. 130.
- Fenugreek Seed excerpted from Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs, American Botanical Council, 2000.
- Fenugreek from Medicinal Herbs Online
- Fenugreek from NaturalHealthNotebook.com
- Fenugreek from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
- Fenugreek Seed from FloraHealth.com
- Fenugreek from HerbMed
- Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) from IntelliHealth.com
- Fenugreek info from Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
- Fenugreek from WebMD
- Fenugreek from MotherNature.com (HealthNotes information)
- Fenugreek info from Samex Agency, an import/export business
- Constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Leguminosae) "Fenugreek" from Southwest School of Botanical Medicine
- Fenugreek: A Noteworthy Hypoglycemic by Lyra Heller, MA
- Fenugreek from DiabetesInControl.com
- Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonells foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seeds on Glycaemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study. JAPI. 2001; 49. 1057-1061.
- Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990 Apr;44(4):301-6.
- Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger and fenugreek on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997 May;56(5):379-84.
- Studies on fenugreek and diabetes
- Studies on fenugreek and high cholesterol
- Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002 Feb;16(2):197-205.
- Pandian RS, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P. Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002 Aug;81(3):393-7.
- Fenugreek from Foods That Heal by H.K.Bakhru
- Methika (Fenugreek) from Ayurveda Authentica
- Fenugreek (Uluhal) purifies menstrual blood in women by Namini Wijedasa
- Medicinal plants used for female fertility and galactopoiesis in traditional medicine in Jordan by M.H. Al-Hamood (the 8th abstract listed)
- Indian Plants in Medicine from IndiaProfile.com
- Ayurveda and herbs
- Breast Enlarging Herbs - An Introduction discusses fenugreek
- The Traditional Foods of the Central Ethiopian Highlands (research report no.7) by Ruth Selinus
- Saltah, Very Special Yemeni Dish from YemenTimes.com
- Helba (fenugreek) from the EthnoMedical DataBase
- Beauty Secrets of Ancient Egypt by Judith Illes
- Aromatic spices from North and East Africa used in traditional medicine by R. Yohannes
- Midwives and Maternity Care in the Roman World by Valerie French
- Foenumgræcum. Bockßhorn. from Fuchs Botanical by Leonhard Fuchs, 1545.
- Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Color plate from Köhler's Medicinal-Plants, 1887.
- Foenum Graecum.—Fenugreek. from King's American Dispensatory by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898.
- Foenum-Graeci Semina. Foenugreek Seeds. from The British Pharmaceutical Codex. Published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1911.
- Foenum graecum. - Fenugreek. from A Manual of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy by Lucius E. Sayre, B.S. Ph. M., 1917. Figure. PDF File [p. 15-16]
- Trigonella - Fenugreek [p. 11 of PDF file] from A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology, by David M.R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (7th edition, 1927)
- Fenugreek—Trigonella Foenum Graecum [p. 32-33 of PDF file] from Illustrated Phytotherapy by Thomas Deschauer, D.Sc, N.D., D.C, 1945.